Climate Modification and Volcanoes

Climate modification is a multi-faceted and complex subject. In this article, we take a look at the relationship between climate modification and volcanoes.

Climate Modification and Volcanoes

The climate modification debate is a nasty one. Parties pick their positions, dig in and refuse to listen to the rants of the other side. Lost in the yelling is the simple fact that climate modification is a natural phenomenon to some extent. For proof, we need merely look at the materials kicked out by volcanoes.

It is an undeniable fact of the earth record that volcanoes have changed the climate during certain periods. Small explosions don’t have much impact, but large explosions send massive amounts of material and gases into the atmosphere. The gases include carbon dioxide, the ultimate bugaboo greenhouse gas. Beyond these gases, however, volcanoes can kick out so much debris and ash that the material in the atmosphere can actually block out the sun or reduce the warming effect.

Mount St. Helens is the most studied and well known recent eruption. Unless you have been meditating in a cave for the last 20 years, you know that the volcano exploded on May 18, 1980. The eruption was powerful enough to flatten everything for 17 miles, immediately turning 10 million trees into so much firewood. The huge volcanic ash cloud stretched halfway across the United States, but barely had an impact on global temperatures.

In contrast, the eruption of the El Chichon volcano in 1982 had a measurable climate impact. El Chichon is located in Mexico and was a much smaller eruption than Mount St. Helens. Still, the average temperature around the globe cooled by one degree. What scientist learned is the climate modification impact of volcanoes is highly dependent on the type of explosion. The materials from Mount St. Helens fell out of the atmosphere quickly, while El Chichon belched enormous amounts of sulfur that remained in the atmosphere for much longer.

One of the problems with climate modification is it occurs over a relatively long period of time. Since we started paying attention to the situation, we have not had a chance to see the impact of a major eruption. The stuff we see on television is really small potatoes compared to historically eruptions of note. For example, Mount St. Helens threw roughly a half a cubic mile of material into the air. In 1815, a volcano in Indonesia belched 24 cubic miles of material into the atmosphere. Obviously, one has to imagine it impacted the climate of the earth.

Is there a relationship between climate modification and volcanoes? Undoubtedly. From what we see, however, the relationship is generally of a short duration and not an explanation for the rising temperatures we are seeing currently.

Rick Chapo is with SolarCompanies.com, a directory of solar energy companies. Visit us to read more articles on solar power and global warming and volcanoes.

Small Business Development And Marketing Strategies

Since most small businesses have suffered during the past several years due to declining sales generally caused by a chaotic economy, it should be helpful to explore the most practical and realistic marketing strategies available to them. Improving business development efforts is desirable during any financial and economic environment, but there are extra benefits to doing so when sales have declined for whatever reason. Because a typical small business owner does not have the luxury of choosing from many strategies available to larger companies, the marketing improvement process for small businesses is necessarily restricted to a relatively short list of business development alternatives. While the choices will vary from case to case, here are three marketing and business development strategies which will often be considered by small businesses:

* Advertising
* Increasing sales staff
* Business proposals

For most smaller companies, declining revenues have led to some financial challenges and the need to reduce operating expenses already. Therefore it is likely that a common limitation and goal in any marketing decision will be to keep the costs reasonable. When dealing with limited funds, small business owners should evaluate which marketing strategy is the most cost effective method. Business proposal writing usually emerges as the leading choice for small companies when cost effectiveness is taken into account.

There are several kinds of business proposals, and not all of them will be realistic options for each company. Here are the two business proposal types which are likely to be worth reviewing closely:

* Formal proposal solicitations
* Informal and unsolicited proposals

Of these two types, the second (unsolicited and informal proposals) usually deserves the most attention by small businesses. Formally solicited proposals are typically announced by a Request for Proposal (RFP) process and are subject to more public awareness and competition by other companies. Depending on competitive circumstances, it is certainly possible that responding to an RFP might be well-suited to some small business situations. In other words, look carefully before deciding to ignore the RFP possibility.

An informal or unsolicited proposal process potentially offers the most freedom for a small business. Timing is frequently a major problem for an RFP because the company or government agency issuing it determines in advance when it will publish the Request for Proposal and in turn will also determine the deadlines for responses. The timing for unsolicited and informal proposals is effectively under the complete control of the small business which is preparing a proposal. The combination of reduced competition and scheduling flexibility usually makes this a compelling approach to business development and proposals.

Unsecured Small Business Loans Easy Financing Without Collateral!

Statistics prove that the demand for unsecured small business loans have been rapidly increasing over the past few years. The idea of an unsecured loan creates new financial horizons for individuals that may not have collateral. This is also of special interest to new business owners that are interested in entering a new business venture. Potential business owners are always interested in a business loan to provide working capital for their new endeavor.

The paradox when applying for most unsecured small business loan programs is that a new business owner does not yet have any collateral. This can quickly shatter a business dream. The only other consideration such an individual can have is to use his or her personal assets to secure a loan. But new business ventures have a risk associated with them, once that many people are not willing to transfer to their hard earned assets.

Collateral is often the biggest obstacle to the prospective business owner. Not only does a new business not yet have any commercial collateral to provide; but it is asking a lot for an entrepreneur to put his hard earned personal assets at risk in order to start a new business venture. Yet, without collateral, getting a business financing can sometimes seem impossible.

Small entrepreneurs, who do not have collateral to offer, find unsecured small business loans as an alternative, which help them expand their business to new horizons. They are only required to make regular repayments to the creditor without any apprehension of their business assets being repossessed by the lender in case of defaults. At the same time, small businessmen who opt for unsecured small business loans should be prepared to pay a little higher interest as compared to other credit options. However, interest rates may vary depending upon the credit history of the businessmen.

No collateral unsecured small business loan products are now available through select lenders, although they can still be relatively difficult to find among traditional banks and lenders. The revolutionizing force is coming from a plethora of web based lenders that are offering innovative new financial solutions, including no collateral loans. A variety of unsecured loan products for business and personal needs can be found via web based financial companies.

Applying for unsecured small business loans is easy, all the business owner need to do is just go on line and submit their loan details. Then the lenders will refer back to you with the loan decision in a few days.

Can You Trade The Forex Without A Broker

There is a myth making the rounds in the Forex universe. This rumor thats whispered and spread from keyboard to keyboard over cyberspace states that in order to take part in Forex trading, you must have a broker. A rumor is all this is because theres no truth in the must part of the rumor . If want to find out how to trade on your own and to avoid the pressure of dealing with a broker, than this might be the most important article you read this year. .

Even if you dont have the first clue about how Forex trading is done, and youve never done it, you still dont have to have a broker if you dont want one . Can you gain from having a Forex broker in your corner? Yes and no. It depends on whether or not your Forex broker is smart about trading and whether or not hes going to be smart about trading for you . Some Forex brokers look at those who want to partake of trading currencies as another zero on their own paycheck and they will actually work against you in a practice known as sniping .

Sniping is a process a dishonest broker will use to cheat you out of your profits. Unfortunately, there is nothing you can do to protect yourself from a broker hell bent on snipping your profits. Not all Forex brokers are bad. There are brokers out there that are in the business to help those interested in trading Forex. . These are professionals in the trading world who value both their customers and their own reputations.

They would no more think of cheating you than they would themselves. Most Forex brokers are legitimate in the trading world but its the actions of a few bad apples that tend to spoil the bushel. You can learn about Forex trading and you can trade without going through a broker if youre afraid you might encounter one who isnt what he claims to be. But on the other hand, an honest broker brings to the table his expertise with the Forex.

While Forex trading with a broker has the advantage of using his expertise to aid you in making trades, sometimes this leads to a tendency on the part of the trader to ignore getting a Forex knowledge on his own. If youre not knowledgeable about Forex trading, then you wont know if the moves your broker are making are for your good or his.

Emerging Market Investment Advice Tips

The emerging market describes a broad range of markets from second and third world countries. It encompasses economies such as China and Brazil, together with countries in Africa and Asia. Generally, the term emerging markets represents economies which are as yet not fully developed, and subsequently an investment in an emerging market can often be high risk but has the potential to yield great returns as their economies are still developing.

If you are considering investing in emerging markets, these advice tips are worth considering.
Do not put all your eggs in the one basket: No financial portfolio should be tied up with just one investment, and any investment in the emerging market should not comprise a dominant percentage of a portfolio.

Long term view: The emerging market has been likened to investing in America in the 1920s as over forty years an investor would have gained a substantial return on any investment. In that time he would have seen prices drop through the floor. This is similar to emerging market investment today, so be prepared to take a long term view to good returns.

Advice: Obtaining general advice on the emerging market is essential, especially if you are new to financial investment. Financial advisors, banks, and other institutions seem like good places to gain valuable advice on the surface. More often than not however, the investor who seeks guidance from these places often pays for advice they do not need, as many of the best decisions can and should be handled by the investor.

A few financial investment companies have realised this and take a hands off approach and only step in with general advice if needed. These are the companies to turn to when guidance is needed.
Commissions: It goes without saying that any financial investment company is going to charge commissions, and subsequently it makes sense to look for a company that charges low rates. Some offer 0% commission initially, and this is a good place to start.

Risk vs. Return: Any investment into the emerging market is high risk. The returns however, have the potential to be considerable and subsequently an emerging market investment becomes a viable option. It is possible to invest in a country or into a fund which in turn is managed by a fund manager.

The latter becomes a question of faith and trust in that manager to do the right thing with your money, so the decision to choose a financial investment company with a view to fund management should not be taken lightly.

Currently, China and Brazil are often seen as good choices for emerging market investment.

Ultimately it is important to realise that as an investor you need to be in control of the fund, even if it is supervised by a fund manager. Some financial companies give you that control, and it is worth spending sometime to find a financial investment company like this.

Subway Franchise Review – One Footlong At A Time

The first Subway franchise was born in 1974 even though founder Fred DeLuca opened his first store 9 years earlier. Today there are currently over 29,000 Subway franchises spanning the globe in over 85 countries. Entrepreneur magazine has ranked Subway the number one franchise 13 out of the last 17 years, so its a rock-solid franchise.

Even with its amazing popularity and tremendous track record, the real question is deciding whether or not owning a Subway franchise is the right choice for you and your family. There’s a ton of things you should consider when making this big of a choice, so let’s identify what the positives and negatives are.

First of all, the total cost of entry and the total investment to get started ranges anywhere from $101,000 to $285,000. The reason for the big discrepancy depends on whether you’re buying an existing franchise or you’re having to build one or start one from the ground up. Other costs may include remodeling, leasing equipment, inventory, etc. Typically, the down payment that’s required must come from your personal liquid assets and can NOT be borrowed or come from a loan. That fact right there might eliminate some potential franchise owners.

Every Subway franchise pays a royalty fee to the company, specifically 8% of their overall gross sales. This is very important to understand because losing 8% right off the top before you pay for any rent, equipment, inventory, marketing, employees, etc can make a difference in whether or not you’re profitable. On the other hand, in exchange for the royalties the franchisee’s are rewarded with a strong brand recognition and national advertising campaigns.

As far as sales are concerned, 2800 sandwiches and salads are sold every 60 seconds. This provides a pretty constant flow of customers and expected sales. Potential franchise owners feel comfortable with this knowing that their stores most likely will not be empty. Besides, people have to eat somewhere, right?

On the flip side, you are at the mercy of your store location when owning a Subway franchise. No matter if you are open 24 hours, a location can only serve so many customers and can only make so much money. Obviously the product can not be sold online or in other areas, so actually getting traffic to the store is the only way to make sales. In this regard, the Subway franchise is NOT scalable. An entrepreneur would probably have to own multiple locations to really generate the kind of income they would be looking for in owning a franchise.

Furthermore, to buy a franchise, you must have good credit, have considerable net worth and you have to be approved by the company. Once again, this could potentially eliminate more prospective franchise buyers. In the end, owning a Subway franchise is a solid way to have a great chance of success but keep in mind that to really make it big, you’ll probably have to own about 10 or more.

Voip Total Phone Solutions For Small Business

If you are like most businesses, the answer lies somewhere between ambivalence and total disdain.

All small business owners know the importance of low cost overhead. Working smart with your money has never been more important than it is in today’s economy. A very efficient way for small businesses to save huge dollars is by subscribing to a small voip phone system, also referred to as voice over internet protocol services. It is a method for making telephone calls by using the Internet. The technology became available around 1990 but with the recent advancements it has become a strong replacement for the traditional land line service.

One of the reasons that Internet VoIP is so popular is because it is very inexpensive as well as dependable. All of the equipment such as bluetooth voip headset, voip phone adapter, and headaches are hosted by the provider so all the business needs to worry about is the Internet connection and a telephone. In some cases you’ll be able to use the same telephones that you used for your land-line while others a special Voip broadband phone will be the best solution. The call quality is so good that rarely would anyone know that you were not using a land line. The provider keeps all the updates and relative maintenance up to date so having equipment or a service that becomes obsolete is not a concern.

The cost of Internet VoIP is so inexpensive because the calls are able to transmit over the Internet in place of a local telephone company’s system. By bypassing the local telephone company there is no fees that have to be paid to them. The process of dialing out and receiving calls is the same. You will need a high speed Internet connection and small voip phone system that is on at all times with a bandwidth large enough for the transmissions to always be clear.

To get started with Internet VoIP you’ll need to choose a voice over internet protocol providers and subscribe to the voip phone plans that best fits your business needs. With all the Internet VoIP options and providers now in the market place, it can be confusing for businesses to know what they need and the best provider for them.

AVAD Technologies, specialists is small business Hosted VoIP, has launched aggressive new pricing on its Hosted VoIP Phone Service. If you are thinking about switching your business to VoIP or just have some questions, please feel free to call (800) 733-4136

Click for Business voip telephone and Hosted pbx providers

The Urgency in Deploying Network Security Appliance for Small Business Networks

Information is business assets, like other valuable business assets, that must be protected against any threats. In medium to enterprise business networks, the management of the information security is a must. In small business networks, generally the organizations lack of competent security experts that should manage the information security. Therefore the choice of the deployment of small business network security appliance is a must for small organizations.

In large enterprise networks, they have many layers of security protections including the endpoint security, the management of information security and policies which must be enforced to all business unit groups. Unlike large scale business or enterprise networks, in small organizations – generally they do not develop the management of information security in place.

This is generally due to lack of IT security expertise which does not compare to the assets that must be rotected. Any layers of security that should be deployed, depends on how critical your information assets is. Therefore, they mainly focus in securing the endpoint security.

The entry point of the private network generally where all the internet threats are coming from, the intruders or the hackers as well as the malware will start to attack the vulnerabilities they found. Therefore, small business network security should concentrate in protecting the entry point by any types of secured firewall appliances. There are many security appliances available in the marketplace you can consider to use for your organization.

The following are some of the small business network security appliances you can consider to use for your small organizations. DSD-150 is designed for home or SOHO networks that use broadband internet connection.

DSD-150 Security appliance

D-Link DSD-150 internet security adapter is an all-in-one small business network security which is designed for home and small business networks. With this single device connected in the entry point of your broadband internet connection, you have a complete protection including network protection, firewall protection, virus protection, spyware protection, identity protection, pop-up blocker, SPAM blocker, and parental control – all in a palm-sized box.

DSD-150 is suitable for home and SOHO as small business network security which has 4 computers or more. installation and configuration is easy, DSD-150 has 2 Ethernet ports, WAN port must be connected to the modem (RJ-45 LAN port), and the LAN port must be connected to the wireless router.

CheckPoint Safe Office 500

CheckPoint Safe Office 500 is a small business network security a total internet security appliance for small to medium sized business networks. If your organization is lack of security personnel, dont worry trust the network security to this CheckPoint Safe Office 500 that can protect a network of up to 100 users from any types of network threats.

Is Whole Life Insurance Investment a Worthy Investment

A whole life insurance investment is a relatively simple concept. You will be presented with a product that has a set premium and you will be paid the agreed upon amount of the death benefit at the end of the policy holders life. You will also have an investment component included in the policy. All money you contribute over and above the premium will be placed into a cash value account which is then invested on your behalf by the insurer.

Apart from providing you with cash value account and a guaranteed death benefit to leave to your heirs a whole life investment has some other features as well. You have the option to borrow against the cash value your policy or fully withdraw an amount if you have an emergency need for the funds available during the life of the policy.

The theory behind a whole life policy is that it will pay out set death benefit and a cash value to your beneficiaries all while you are guaranteed a set, unchanging premium for the life of the policy. It does more than this, though, when you consider the fact that all the money is tax free and/or tax deferred.

Because of this tax free feature you will have the ability to make a portfolio that can achieve a number of goals that you otherwise may not be able to. You can actually use the whole life policy to secure a smooth succession in the case of a family owned business or to protect your other assets.

You may be met with derision about your interest in a whole life insurance investment by detractors who say that it isnt a real investment because it isnt run like ones stocks, bonds, and mutual funds. While it may not grow that fast, it has the potential to a much safer long term investment since it is done in a safer manner that is designed to ensure your money keeps growing despite market ups and downs.

A whole life insurance investment policy is generally seen as a “savings asset” as opposed to an “investment asset” because your money is saved and grown in a much less aggressive fashion than regular stocks and bonds. With a whole life insurance policy your additional money will be placed into a savings account where it will accrue interest. You dont have to invest the money within this savings account, but you can do so if you wish to. The savings account on its own, though, will become a huge asset over time.

Personalized Koozies – Five Ways To Use Personalized Koozies For Your Small Business

As giveaways at job fairs: with the economy the way it is, businesses need as much exposure as they could acquire, as well as exactly what better place than through a job fair. Even if you’re not planning on employing a lots of individuals, personalized Koozies still make a good promotional giveaway product that attendees may take along with them. This is particularly beneficial if you’re a service kind of company, and may keep your name right in front of their minds for some time to come.

2. Charity happenings: whenever charities are trying to boost money, the first to be approached are local businesses in your community exactly where they will be holding their fundraising affair. By including personalized Koozies with your logo along with name on them, you not just practice good local community assistance through assisting the charity with their fund raising, you get nice publicity and also advertising for your business at the same time. Designing them to replicate the charitys concept as well as colors makes them a collectible, too.

3. As sales giveaways: in case your business endures sales, then providing personalized Koozies in your sales agents for use as part of their own personal promotional deals is a great idea. Whenever they contact a new customer, they are able to leave one or more with them as being a gift for being attentive to the presentation. At product sales seminars for your enterprise niche, they generate great gifts for your prime sales staff, customized with their accomplishments, or as a free gift throughout the meeting.

4. When sponsoring local sports clubs: lots of companies today will support local sports teams as part of their promotion efforts. Precisely why stop at just supplying jerseys for any Little League team, when you could give personalized Koozies also? You may have them imprinted up with the team name, their logo, and also the season or perhaps year. They will show how much you care about the kids, and provide them, and their guardians, something to remember your sponsorship as well as your small business.

5. At welcome centres or even chambers of commerce: When individuals move into a new community, they generally check with local workplaces for names of organizations they may have need of in the foreseeable future. Chambers of commerce would gladly supply space for giveaways to new people, as well as handy stuff like personalized Koozies will always be delightful. The Welcome Wagon will always be searching for new gift items to incorporate in their welcome deals, also. Exactly why not provide them with a few cases of Koozies along with your logo, name as well as contact information to encouraged newbies with?